Michigan Emergency Management Act
Act 390 of 1976

 

Yellow highlighting has been added to emphasize statutes that provide some, but not all, liability protection for volunteer personnel having duties or responsibilities under this act or pursuant to a lawful order or directive authorized by this act.

 

MCL §30.401- Short title. 2

MCL §30.402- Definitions. 2

MCL §30.403- Responsibility of governor; executive orders, proclamations, and directives; declaration, duration, and termination of state of disaster or state of emergency; contents and dissemination of executive order or proclamation. 4

MCL §30.404- Effect of executive order or proclamation of state of disaster or state of emergency; federal assistance; reciprocal aid agreement or compact; appropriation. 5

MCL §30.405- Additional powers of governor; disobeying or interfering with rule, order, or directive as misdemeanor. 5

MCL §30.406- Obligation of person within state; compensation for services or property; record; claims; exceptions. 6

MCL §30.407- Powers and duties of director. 7

MCL §30.407a-- Emergency management division; establishment; purpose; employees; emergency management plan; grants; powers of division; definition. 8

MCL §30.408- Emergency management coordinator; employment or appointment; duties; annexes to emergency management plan; cooperation of state agencies. 9

MCL §30.409- Emergency management coordinator; appointment; duties; eligibility. 10

MCL §30.410- Powers of county and municipality; mutual aid or reciprocal aid agreements or compacts; assistance of emergency management coordinator. 11

MCL §30.411- Powers and duties of personnel of disaster relief forces; liability for personal injury or property damage; right to benefits or compensation; disaster relief workers; immunity; liability and legal obligation of persons owning or controlling real estate or other premises used for shelter; "gross negligence" defined. 12

MCL §30.411a----- Disaster or emergency relief assistance provided by state employee; unpaid leave of absence; leave of absence with pay; conditions; limitation. 15

MCL §30.412- Disaster or emergency occurring in county or municipality; procedure; ordinances or rules. 15

MCL §30.413- Repealed. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990. 16

MCL §30.414- Assessment of disaster or emergency; findings and recommendations; notice; temporary assistance; action by governor. 16

MCL §30.415- Repealed. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002. 17

MCL §30.416- Declaration of emergency or major disaster by president; federal grants; agreement pledging state's share. 17

MCL §30.417- Construction of act. 17

MCL §30.418- Disaster contingency fund; creation; administration; accounting; appropriation; expenditures; reimbursement. 18

MCL §30.419- Disaster contingency fund; expenditures when federal assistance not available; application for grant; resolution; rules. 18

MCL §30.420- Repeal of §§ 30.221 to 30.233. 19

MCL §30.421- Heightened state of alert; cause; powers of governor; violation as misdemeanor; penalty; civil action; definitions. 20

 

MCL §30.401  Short title.

This act shall be known and may be cited as the “emergency management act”.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

Compiler's Notes: For transfer of authority, powers, duties, functions, and responsibilities of the Michigan Emergency Management Advisory Council from the Department of State Police to the Director of State Police, as head of the Department of State Police, and the abolishment of the Michigan Emergency Management Advisory Council, see E.R.O. No. 1993-15, compiled at MCL 28.702 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

MCL §30.402  Definitions.

As used in this act:

(a)     “Chief executive official” means:

(i)      In the case of a county with an elected county executive, the county executive.

(ii)     In the case of a county without an elected county executive, the chairperson of the county board of commissioners, or the appointed administrator designated by appropriate enabling legislation.

(iii)    In the case of a city, the mayor or the individual specifically identified in the municipal charter.

(iv)     In the case of a township, the township supervisor.

(v)     In the case of a village, the village president or the individual specifically identified in the village charter.

(b)     “Council” means the Michigan emergency management advisory council.

(c)     “Department” means the department of state police.

(d)     “Director” or “state director of emergency management” means the director of the department of state police or his or her designee.

(e)     “Disaster” means an occurrence or threat of widespread or severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property resulting from a natural or human-made cause, including, but not limited to, fire, flood, snowstorm, ice storm, tornado, windstorm, wave action, oil spill, water contamination, utility failure, hazardous peacetime radiological incident, major transportation accident, hazardous materials incident, epidemic, air contamination, blight, drought, infestation, explosion, or hostile military action or paramilitary action, or similar occurrences resulting from terrorist activities, riots, or civil disorders.

(f)      “Disaster relief forces” means all agencies of state, county, and municipal government, private and volunteer personnel, public officers and employees, and all other persons or groups of persons having duties or responsibilities under this act or pursuant to a lawful order or directive authorized by this act.

(g)     “District coordinator” means the state police emergency management division district coordinator.

(h)     “Emergency” means any occasion or instance in which the governor determines state assistance is needed to supplement local efforts and capabilities to save lives, protect property and the public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the state.

(i)      “Emergency management coordinator” means a person appointed pursuant to section 9 to coordinate emergency management within the county or municipality.  Emergency management coordinator includes a civil defense director, civil defense coordinator, emergency services coordinator, emergency program manager, or other person with a similar title and duties.

(j)      “Local state of emergency” means a proclamation or declaration that activates the response and recovery aspects of any and all applicable local or interjurisdictional emergency operations plans and authorizes the furnishing of aid, assistance, and directives under those plans.

(k)     “Michigan emergency management plan” means the plan prepared and maintained by the emergency management division of the department and signed by the governor.

(l)      “Municipality” means a city, village, or township.

(m)    “Person” means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or any other entity.

(n)     “Political subdivision” means a county, municipality, school district, or any other governmental unit, agency, body, board, or commission which is not a state department, board, commission, or agency of state government.

(o)     “Rule” means a rule promulgated pursuant to the administrative procedures act of 1969, Act No. 306 of the Public Acts of 1969, being sections 24.201 to 24.328 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(p)     “State of disaster” means an executive order or proclamation that activates the disaster response and recovery aspects of the state, local, and interjurisdictional emergency operations plans applicable to the counties or municipalities affected.

(q)     “State of emergency” means an executive order or proclamation that activates the emergency response and recovery aspects of the state, local, and interjurisdictional emergency operations plans applicable to the counties or municipalities affected.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.403  Responsibility of governor; executive orders, proclamations, and directives; declaration, duration, and termination of state of disaster or state of emergency; contents and dissemination of executive order or proclamation.

 (1)    The governor is responsible for coping with dangers to this state or the people of this state presented by a disaster or emergency.

(2)     The governor may issue executive orders, proclamations, and directives having the force and effect of law to implement this act.  Except as provided in section 7(2), an executive order, proclamation, or directive may be amended or rescinded by the governor.

(3)     The governor shall, by executive order or proclamation, declare a state of disaster if he or she finds a disaster has occurred or the threat of a disaster exists.  The state of disaster shall continue until the governor finds that the threat or danger has passed, the disaster has been dealt with to the extent that disaster conditions no longer exist, or until the declared state of disaster has been in effect for 28 days.  After 28 days, the governor shall issue an executive order or proclamation declaring the state of disaster terminated, unless a request by the governor for an extension of the state of disaster for a specific number of days is approved by resolution of both houses of the legislature.  An executive order or proclamation issued pursuant to this subsection shall indicate the nature of the disaster, the area or areas threatened, the conditions causing the disaster, and the conditions permitting the termination of the state of disaster.  An executive order or proclamation shall be disseminated promptly by means calculated to bring its contents to the attention of the general public and shall be promptly filed with the emergency management division of the department and the secretary of state, unless circumstances attendant upon the disaster prevent or impede its prompt filing.

(4)     The governor shall, by executive order or proclamation, declare a state of emergency if he or she finds that an emergency has occurred or that the threat of an emergency exists.  The state of emergency shall continue until the governor finds that the threat or danger has passed, the emergency has been dealt with to the extent that emergency conditions no longer exist, or until the declared state of emergency has been in effect for 28 days.  After 28 days, the governor shall issue an executive order or proclamation declaring the state of emergency terminated, unless a request by the governor for an extension of the state of emergency for a specific number of days is approved by resolution of both houses of the legislature.  An executive order or proclamation issued pursuant to this subsection shall indicate the nature of the emergency, the area or areas threatened, the conditions causing the emergency, and the conditions permitting the termination of the state of emergency.  An executive order or proclamation shall be disseminated promptly by means calculated to bring its contents to the attention of the general public and shall be promptly filed with the emergency management division of the department and the secretary of state, unless circumstances attendant upon the emergency prevent or impede its prompt filing.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.404  Effect of executive order or proclamation of state of disaster or state of emergency; federal assistance; reciprocal aid agreement or compact; appropriation.

 (1)    An executive order or proclamation of a state of disaster or a state of emergency shall serve to authorize the deployment and use of any forces to which the plan or plans apply and the use or distribution of supplies, equipment, materials, or facilities assembled or stockpiled pursuant to this act.

(2)     Upon declaring a state of disaster or a state of emergency, the governor may seek and accept assistance, either financial or otherwise, from the federal government, pursuant to federal law or regulation.

(3)     The governor may, with the approval of the state administrative board, enter into a reciprocal aid agreement or compact with another state, the federal government, or a neighboring state or province of a foreign country.  A reciprocal aid agreement shall be limited to the furnishing or exchange of food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies; engineering services; emergency housing; police services; the services of the national guard when not mobilized for federal service or state defense force as authorized by the Michigan military act, Act No. 150 of the Public Acts of 1967, as amended, being sections 32.501 to 32.851 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, and subject to federal limitations on the crossing of national boundaries by organized military forces; health, medical, and related services; fire fighting, rescue, transportation, and construction services and equipment; personnel necessary to provide or conduct these services; and other necessary equipment, facilities, and services. A reciprocal aid agreement shall specify terms for the reimbursement of costs and expenses and conditions necessary for activating the agreement.  The legislature shall appropriate funds to implement a reciprocal aid agreement.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.405  Additional powers of governor; disobeying or interfering with rule, order, or directive as misdemeanor.

 (1)    In addition to the general authority granted to the governor by this act, the governor may, upon the declaration of a state of disaster or a state of emergency do 1 or more of the following:

(a)     Suspend a regulatory statute, order, or rule prescribing the procedures for conduct of state business, when strict compliance with the statute, order, or rule would prevent, hinder, or delay necessary action in coping with the disaster or emergency.  This power does not extend to the suspension of criminal process and procedures.

(b)     Utilize the available resources of the state and its political subdivisions, and those of the federal government made available to the state, as are reasonably necessary to cope with the disaster or emergency.

(c)     Transfer the direction, personnel, or functions of state departments, agencies, or units thereof for the purpose of performing or facilitating emergency management.

(d)     Subject to appropriate compensation, as authorized by the legislature, commandeer or utilize private property necessary to cope with the disaster or emergency.

(e)     Direct and compel the evacuation of all or part of the population from a stricken or threatened area within the state if necessary for the preservation of life or other mitigation, response, or recovery activities.

(f)      Prescribe routes, modes, and destination of transportation in connection with an evacuation.

(g)     Control ingress and egress to and from a stricken or threatened area, removal of persons within the area, and the occupancy of premises within the area.

(h)     Suspend or limit the sale, dispensing, or transportation of alcoholic beverages, firearms, explosives, and combustibles.

(i)      Provide for the availability and use of temporary emergency housing.

(j)      Direct all other actions which are necessary and appropriate under the circumstances.

(2)     A person who willfully disobeys or interferes with the implementation of a rule, order, or directive issued by the governor pursuant to this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.406  Obligation of person within state; compensation for services or property; record; claims; exceptions.

(1)     All persons within this state shall conduct themselves and manage their affairs and property in ways that will reasonably assist and will not unreasonably detract from the ability of the state and the public to cope with the effects of a disaster or an emergency.  This obligation includes appropriate personal service and the use or restriction of the use of property in time of a disaster or an emergency.  This act neither increases nor decreases these obligations but recognizes their existence under the state constitution of 1963, the statutes, and the common law.  Compensation for services or for the taking or use of property shall be paid only if obligations recognized herein are exceeded in a particular case and only if the claimant has not volunteered his or her services or property without compensation.

(2)     Personal services may not be compensated by the state, or a subdivision or agency of the state, except pursuant to statute, local law, or ordinance.

(3)     Compensation for property shall be paid only if the property is taken or otherwise used in coping with a disaster or emergency and its use or destruction is ordered by the governor or the director.  A record of all property taken or otherwise used under this act shall be made and promptly transmitted to the office of the governor.

(4)     A person claiming compensation for the use, damage, loss, or destruction of property under this act shall file a claim with the emergency management division of the department in the form and manner prescribed by the division.

(5)     If a claimant refuses to accept the amount of compensation offered by the state, a claim may be filed in the state court of claims which court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the amount of compensation due the owner.

(6)     This section does not apply to or authorize compensation for either of the following:

(a)     The destruction or damaging of standing timber or other property to provide a firebreak.

(b)     The release of waters or the breach of impoundments to reduce pressure or other danger from actual or threatened flood.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.407  Powers and duties of director.

(1)     The director shall implement the orders and directives of the governor in the event of a disaster or an emergency and shall coordinate all federal, state, county, and municipal disaster prevention, mitigation, relief, and recovery operations within this state.  At the specific direction of the governor, the director shall assume complete command of all disaster relief, mitigation, and recovery forces, except the national guard or state defense force, if it appears that this action is absolutely necessary for an effective effort.

(2)     If the governor has issued a proclamation, executive order, or directive under section 3 regarding state of disaster or state of emergency declarations, section 5 regarding actions directed by the governor, or section 21 regarding heightened state of alert, the director may, with the concurrence of the governor, amend the proclamation or directive by adding additional counties or municipalities or terminating the orders and restrictions as considered necessary.

(3)     The director shall comply with the applicable provisions of the Michigan emergency management plan in the performance of the director's duties under this act.

(4)     The director's powers and duties shall include the administration of state and federal disaster relief funds and money; the mobilization and direction of state disaster relief forces; the assignment of general missions to the national guard or state defense force activated for active state duty to assist the disaster relief operations; the receipt, screening, and investigation of requests for assistance from county and municipal governmental entities; making recommendations to the governor; and other appropriate actions within the general authority of the director.

(5)     In carrying out the director's responsibilities under this act, the director may plan for and utilize the assistance of any volunteer group or person having a pertinent service to render.

(6)     The director may issue a directive relieving the donor or supplier of voluntary or private assistance from liability for other than gross negligence in the performance of the assistance.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.407a Emergency management division; establishment; purpose; employees; emergency management plan; grants; powers of division; definition.

(1)     The department shall establish an emergency management division for the purpose of coordinating within this state the emergency management activities of county, municipal, state, and federal governments. The department shall provide the division with professional and support employees as necessary for the performance of its functions.

(2)     The division shall prepare and maintain a Michigan emergency management plan that is a comprehensive plan that encompasses mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery for this state.

(3)     The division shall receive available state and federal emergency management and disaster related grants-in-aid and shall administer and apportion the grants according to appropriately established guidelines to the agencies of this state and local political subdivisions.

(4)     The division may do 1 or more of the following:

(a)     Promulgate rules that establish standards and requirements for the appointment, training, and professional development of emergency management coordinators.

(b)     Promulgate rules that establish standards and requirements for local and interjurisdictional emergency management programs.

(c)     Periodically review local and interjurisdictional emergency operations plans.

(d)     Promulgate rules that establish standards and requirements for emergency training and exercising programs and public information programs.

(e)     Make surveys of industries, resources, and facilities within this state, both public and private, necessary to carry out the purposes of this act.

(f)      Prepare, for issuance by the governor, executive orders, proclamations, and regulations as necessary or appropriate in coping with disasters and emergencies.

(g)     Provide for 1 or more state emergency operations centers to provide for the coordination of emergency response and disaster recovery in this state.

(h)     Provide for the coordination and cooperation of state agencies and departments with federal and local government agencies and departments in emergency management activities.

(i)      Cooperate with the federal government and any public or private agency or entity in achieving any purpose of this act and in implementing programs for disaster mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery.

(j)      Propose and administer statewide mutual aid compacts and agreements.

(k)     Do other activities necessary, incidental, or appropriate for the implementation of this act.

(5)     For purposes of this section, the judicial branch of this state is considered a department of state government.

(6)     As used in this section, “division” means the emergency management division of the department.

History: Add. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.408  Emergency management coordinator; employment or appointment; duties; annexes to emergency management plan; cooperation of state agencies.

 (1)    The director of each department of state government, and those agencies of state government required by the Michigan emergency management plan to provide an annex to that plan, shall serve as emergency management coordinator for their respective departments or agencies.  Each director may appoint or employ a designated representative as emergency management coordinator, provided that the representative shall act for and at the direction of that director while functioning in the capacity of emergency management coordinator upon the activation of the state emergency operations center, or the declaration of a state of disaster or emergency.  Each department or agency emergency management coordinator shall act as liaison between his or her department or agency and the emergency management division of the department in all matters of emergency management, including the activation of the Michigan emergency management plan.  Each department or agency of state government specified in the Michigan emergency management plan shall prepare and continuously update an annex to the plan providing for the delivery of emergency management activities by that agency or the department.  The annexes shall be in a form prescribed by the director.  The emergency management coordinator shall represent the agency or department head in the drafting and updating of the respective agency's or the department's emergency management annex and in coordinating the agency's or department's emergency management efforts with those of the other state agencies as well as with county and municipal governments.

(2)     Upon the declaration of a state of disaster or a state of emergency by the governor, each state agency shall cooperate to the fullest possible extent with the director in the performance of the services that it is suited to perform, and as described in the Michigan emergency management plan, in the prevention, mitigation, response to, or recovery from the disaster or emergency.  For purposes of this section, the judicial branch of this state is considered a department of state government and the chief justice of the Michigan supreme court is considered the director of that department.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.409  Emergency management coordinator; appointment; duties; eligibility.

(1)     The county board of commissioners of each county shall appoint an emergency management coordinator.  In the absence of an appointed person, the emergency management coordinator shall be the chairperson of the county board of commissioners.  The emergency management coordinator shall act for, and at the direction of, the chairperson of the county board of commissioners in the coordination of all matters pertaining to emergency management in the county, including mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.  In counties with an elected county executive, the county emergency management coordinator may act for and at the direction of the county executive.  Pursuant to a resolution adopted by a county, the county boards of commissioners of not more than 3 adjoining counties may agree upon and appoint a coordinator to act for the multicounty area.

(2)     A municipality with a population of 25,000 or more shall either appoint a municipal emergency management coordinator or appoint the coordinator of the county as the municipal emergency management coordinator pursuant to subsection (7).  In the absence of an appointed person, the emergency management coordinator shall be the chief executive official of that municipality.  The coordinator of a municipality shall be appointed by the chief executive official in a manner provided in the municipal charter.  The coordinator of a municipality with a population of 25,000 or more shall act for and at the direction of the chief executive official of the municipality or the official designated in the municipal charter in the coordination of all matters pertaining to emergency management, disaster preparedness, and recovery assistance within the municipality.

(3)     A municipality with a population of 10,000 or more may appoint an emergency management coordinator for the municipality.  The coordinator of a municipality shall be appointed by the chief executive official in a manner provided in the municipal charter.  The coordinator of a municipality with a population of 10,000 or more shall act for and at the direction of the chief executive official or the official designated by the municipal charter in the coordination of all matters pertaining to emergency management, disaster preparedness, and recovery assistance within the municipality.

(4)     A municipality having a population of less than 10,000 may appoint an emergency management coordinator who shall serve at the direction of the county emergency management coordinator.

(5)     A public college or university with a combined average population of faculty, students, and staff of 25,000 or more, including its satellite campuses within this state, shall appoint an emergency management coordinator for the public college or university.  Public colleges or universities with a combined average population of faculty, students, and staff of 10,000 or more, including its satellite campuses within this state, may appoint an emergency management coordinator for the public college or university.

(6)     A person is not ineligible for appointment as an emergency management coordinator, or as a member of a county or municipal emergency services or emergency management agency or organization, because that person holds another public office or trust, and that person shall not forfeit the right to a public office or trust by reason of his or her appointment as an emergency management coordinator.

(7)     A county coordinator may be appointed a municipal coordinator for any municipality within the county and a municipal coordinator may be appointed a county coordinator.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.410  Powers of county and municipality; mutual aid or reciprocal aid agreements or compacts; assistance of emergency management coordinator.

(1)     Each county and municipality that has appointed an emergency management coordinator under section 9 may do 1 or more of the following:

(a)     Direct and coordinate the development of emergency operations plans and programs in accordance with the policies and plans established by the appropriate federal and state agencies.  Each department or agency of a county or municipality specified in the emergency operations plan to provide an annex to the plan shall prepare and continuously update the annex providing for emergency management activities, including mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, by the department or agency and those other emergency activities the department or agency is specified to coordinate.  Emergency operations plans and programs developed under this subsection shall include provisions for the dissemination of public information and local broadcasters shall be consulted in developing such provisions.  Emergency operations plans and programs developed under this subdivision shall include local courts.

(b)     Declare a local state of emergency if circumstances within the county or municipality indicate that the occurrence or threat of widespread or severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property from a natural or human-made cause exists and, under a declaration of a local state of emergency, issue directives as to travel restrictions on county or local roads.  This power shall be vested in the chief executive official of the county or municipality or the official designated by charter and shall not be continued or renewed for a period in excess of 7 days except with the consent of the governing body of the county or municipality.  The declaration of a local state of emergency shall be promptly filed with the emergency management division of the department, unless circumstances attendant upon the disaster prevent or impede its prompt filing.

(c)     Appropriate and expend funds, make contracts, and obtain and distribute equipment, materials, and supplies for disaster purposes.

(d)     Provide for the health and safety of persons and property, including emergency assistance to the victims of a disaster.

(e)     Direct and coordinate local multi-agency response to emergencies within the county or municipality.

(f)      Appoint, employ, remove, or provide, with or without compensation, rescue teams, auxiliary fire and police personnel, and other disaster workers.

(g)     Appoint a local emergency management advisory council.

(h)     If a state of disaster or emergency is declared by the governor, assign and make available for duty the employees, property, or equipment of the county or municipality relating to fire fighting; engineering; rescue; health, medical, and related services; police; transportation; construction; and similar items or service for disaster relief purposes within or without the physical limits of the county or municipality as ordered by the governor or the director.

(i)      In the event of a foreign attack upon this state, waive procedures and formalities otherwise required by law pertaining to the performance of public work, entering into contracts, the incurring of obligations, the employment of permanent and temporary workers, the utilization of volunteer workers, the rental of equipment, the purchase and distribution with or without compensation of supplies, materials, and facilities, and the appropriation and expenditure of public funds.

(2)     For the purpose of providing assistance during a disaster or emergency, municipalities and counties may enter into mutual aid or reciprocal aid agreements or compacts with other counties, municipalities, public agencies, federally recognized tribal nations, or private sector agencies, or all of these entities.  A compact entered into pursuant to this subsection is limited to the exchange of personnel, equipment, and other resources in times of emergency, disaster, or other serious threats to public health and safety.  The arrangements shall be consistent with the Michigan emergency management plan.

(3)     The emergency management coordinator may assist in the development or negotiation, or both, of a mutual aid or reciprocal aid agreement or compact made pursuant to section 4(3) and shall carry out the agreement or compact.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002

MCL §30.411  Powers and duties of personnel of disaster relief forces; liability for personal injury or property damage; right to benefits or compensation; disaster relief workers; immunity; liability and legal obligation of persons owning or controlling real estate or other premises used for shelter; "gross negligence" defined.

(1)     Personnel of disaster relief forces while on duty are subject to all of the following provisions:

(a)     If they are employees of this state, they have the powers, duties, rights, privileges, and immunities of and receive the compensation incidental to their employment.

(b)     If they are employees of a political subdivision of this state, regardless of where serving, they have the powers, duties, rights, privileges, and immunities and receive the compensation incidental to their employment.

(c)     If they are not employees of this state or a political subdivision of this state, they are entitled to the same rights and immunities as provided by law for the employees of this state.  All personnel of disaster relief forces shall, while on duty, be subject to the operational control of the authority in charge of disaster relief activities in the area in which they are serving, and shall be reimbursed for all actual and necessary travel and subsistence expenses.

(2)     This state, any political subdivision of this state, or the employees, agents, or representatives of this state or any political subdivision of this state are not liable for personal injury or property damage sustained by any person appointed or acting as a member of disaster relief forces.  This act does not affect the right of a person to receive benefits or compensation to which he or she may otherwise be entitled to under the worker's disability compensation act of 1969, 1969 PA 317, MCL 418.101 to 418.941, any pension law, or any act of congress.

(3)     This state or a political subdivision of this state engaged in disaster relief activity is not liable for the death of or injury to a person or persons, or for damage to property, as a result of that activity.  The employees, agents, or representatives of this state or a political subdivision of this state and nongovernmental disaster relief force workers or private or volunteer personnel engaged in disaster relief activity are immune from tort liability to the extent provided under section 7 of 1964 PA 170, MCL 691.1407.  As used in this section, "disaster relief activity" includes training for or responding to an actual, impending, mock, or practice disaster or emergency.

(4)     A person licensed to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine and surgery or a licensed hospital, whether licensed in this or another state or by the federal government or a branch of the armed forces of the United States, or an individual listed in subsection (6), who renders services during a state of disaster declared by the governor and at the express or implied request of a state official or agency or county or local coordinator or executive body, is considered an authorized disaster relief worker or facility and is not liable for an injury sustained by a person by reason of those services, regardless of how or under what circumstances or by what cause those injuries are sustained. The immunity granted by this subsection does not apply in the event of an act or omission that is willful or gross negligence.  If a civil action for malpractice is filed alleging an act or omission that is willful or gross negligence resulting in injuries, the services rendered that resulted in those injuries shall be judged according to the standards required of persons licensed in this state to perform those services.

(5)     An individual listed in subsection (6), during a state of disaster declared by the governor, may practice, in addition to the authority granted by other statutes of this state, the administration of anesthetics; minor surgery; intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular procedure; or oral and topical medication; or a combination of these under the supervision of a member of the medical staff of a licensed hospital of this state, and may assist the staff member in other medical and surgical proceedings.

(6)     Subsections (4) and (5) apply to all of the following individuals:

(a)     Any of the following, if licensed in this or another state or by the federal government or a branch of the armed forces of the United States:

(i)      A registered nurse.

(ii)     A practical nurse.

(iii)    A nursing student acting under the supervision of a licensed nurse.

(iv)     A dentist.

(v)     A veterinarian.

(vi)     A pharmacist.

(vii)    A pharmacist intern acting under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist.

(viii)   A paramedic.

(b)     A medical resident undergoing training in a licensed hospital in this or another state.

(7)     A person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who voluntarily and without compensation grants to this state or a political subdivision of this state a license or privilege, or otherwise permits this state or a political subdivision of this state to inspect, designate, and use the whole or any part or parts of the real estate or other premises for the purpose of sheltering persons during an actual, impending, mock, or practice disaster, together with his or her successors in interest, if any, is not civilly liable for negligently causing the death of or injury to any person on or about the real estate or premises under the license, privilege, or permission or for loss or damage to the property of the person.

(8)     A person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who has gratuitously granted the use of the real estate or other premises for the purposes stated in this section is legally obligated to make known to the licensee any hidden dangers or safety hazards that are known to the owner or occupant of the real estate or premises that might possibly result in the death or injury or loss of property to a person using the real estate or premises.

(9)     As used in this section, "gross negligence" means conduct so reckless as to demonstrate a substantial lack of concern for whether an injury results.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002 ;-- Am. 2005, Act 321, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2005

Admin Rule: R 30.1 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.

MCL §30.411a Disaster or emergency relief assistance provided by state employee; unpaid leave of absence; leave of absence with pay; conditions; limitation.

(1)     A state employee who is not in the state classified civil service and who is skilled in emergency relief assistance and certified as a disaster services volunteer by the American Red Cross may be granted an unpaid leave of absence from his or her state employment to provide disaster or emergency relief assistance in this state.

(2)     A state employee in the state classified civil service who is skilled in emergency relief assistance and certified as a disaster services volunteer by the American Red Cross may be granted a leave of absence from his or her classified employment to provide disaster or emergency relief assistance in this state as authorized by the civil service commission.

(3)     In addition to unpaid leave under subsection (1) or (2), an employee of an agency in any branch of state government who is skilled in emergency relief assistance and certified as a disaster services volunteer by the American Red Cross may be granted leave from work with pay for not more than 10 days in any 12-month period to participate in specialized disaster relief services within or outside of this state if all of the following circumstances are present:

(a)     The governor or the president of the United States has declared the disaster.

(b)     The American Red Cross has requested the services of the employee.

(c)     The employee's department head has approved the leave.

(d)     If the services are rendered outside the state by an employee in the executive branch, the governor has approved the leave.

(e)     If the employee is in the state classified civil service, the civil service commission has approved the leave.

(4)     Not more than 50 state employees shall be granted paid leave under subsection (3) during the fiscal year.  The governor may increase the limit on the number of state employees who may be granted paid disaster leave during the fiscal year by executive order.

(5)     This state shall not penalize or otherwise take adverse employment action against a state employee because the employee takes a leave of absence authorized under this section to provide disaster or emergency relief assistance.  However, the state shall recover payment for paid disaster leave from an employee who is granted paid leave under subsection (3) if the employee does not use the leave time for the approved purpose.

History: Add. 2006, Act 267, Imd. Eff. July 7, 2006

MCL §30.412  Disaster or emergency occurring in county or municipality; procedure; ordinances or rules.

(1)     If a disaster or an emergency occurs in a county or municipality and is beyond the control of local public or private agencies, the chief executive official of the county or municipality may request the governor to declare that a state of disaster or state of emergency exists in the county or municipality, utilizing the procedure set forth in section 14.  The director may order the disaster relief forces of a county or municipality to aid the community.  The chief executive official of the municipality or the governing body of the county shall comply with the order of the director and cooperate with the director in matters of emergency management.

(2)     A county, municipality, or other agency designated or appointed by the governor may make, amend, and rescind ordinances or rules necessary for emergency management purposes and supplementary to a rule, order, or directive issued by the governor or a state agency exercising a power delegated to it by the governor.  The ordinance or rule shall be temporary and, upon the governor's declaration that a state of disaster or state of emergency is terminated, shall no longer be in effect.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.413  Repealed. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990.

Compiler's Notes: The repealed section pertained to foreign attack on state.

MCL §30.414  Assessment of disaster or emergency; findings and recommendations; notice; temporary assistance; action by governor.

(1)     In the event a disaster or emergency occurs that has not yet been declared to be a state of disaster or a state of emergency by the governor, and the disaster or emergency is considered by the chief executive official of the municipality or the governing body or the county in which it occurs to be beyond the control of the county or municipality, the emergency management coordinator shall immediately contact the district coordinator.  The chief executive official of a county shall not request state assistance or a declaration of a state of disaster or a state of emergency for an emergency which has occurred or is occurring solely within the confines of a township, city, or village within the county unless requested to do so by the chief executive official of the affected township, city, or village.  The district coordinator, in conjunction with the county or municipal coordinator, shall assess the nature and scope of the disaster or emergency, and they shall recommend the personnel, services, and equipment that will be required for its prevention, mitigation, or relief.

(2)     Upon completing the assessment, the district coordinator shall forthwith notify the director of the findings and recommendations.  The director shall immediately notify the governor.  If the director determines that immediate action is essential to the preservation of life and property, the director may initiate temporary assistance to the affected area as necessary and compatible with the policies and procedures of the Michigan emergency management plan.

(3)     The director shall advise the governor of the magnitude of the disaster or emergency.  The governor may take the necessary action he or she considers appropriate to mitigate the disaster or emergency.  This act shall not be construed to restrain the governor from exercising on his own initiative any of the powers set forth in this act.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.415  Repealed. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002.

Compiler's Notes: The repealed section pertained to Michigan emergency management advisory council.

MCL §30.416  Declaration of emergency or major disaster by president; federal grants; agreement pledging state's share.

After the president of the United States declares an emergency or a major disaster, as defined in the disaster relief act of 1974, Public Law 93-288, 88 Stat. 143, to exist in this state, the governor may apply for, accept, and disburse grants from the federal government pursuant to the disaster relief act of 1974.  To implement and administer the grant program and to make financial grants, the governor may enter into an agreement with the federal government or any officer, or agency of the federal government, pledging the state's share for the financial grants.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.417  Construction of act.

This act shall not be construed to do any of the following:

(a)     Interfere with the course or conduct of a labor dispute.  However, actions otherwise authorized by this act or other laws may be taken when necessary to forestall or mitigate imminent or existing danger to public health or safety.

(b)     Interfere with the dissemination of news or comment on public affairs.  However, any communications facility or organization, including radio and television stations, wire services, and newspapers, may be requested to transmit or print public service messages furnishing information or instructions in connection with a disaster or emergency.

(c)     Affect the jurisdiction or responsibilities of law enforcement agencies, fire fighting forces, and units or personnel of the armed forces of the United States when on active duty.  However, state, local, and interjurisdictional emergency operations plans shall place reliance upon the forces available for performance of functions related to disasters or emergencies.

(d)     Limit, modify, or abridge the authority of the governor to proclaim a state of emergency pursuant to Act No. 302 of the Public Acts of 1945, being sections 10.31 to 10.33 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, or exercise any other powers vested in him or her under the state constitution of 1963, statutes, or common law of this state independent of, or in conjunction with, this act.

(e)     Relieve any state or local official, department head, or agency of its normal responsibilities.

(f)      Limit or abridge the power, duty, or responsibility of the chief executive official of a county or municipality to act in the event of a disaster or emergency except as expressly set forth in this act.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.418  Disaster contingency fund; creation; administration; accounting; appropriation; expenditures; reimbursement.

(1)     A disaster contingency fund is created and shall be administered by the director.  An annual accounting of expenditures under this act shall be made to the legislature and the legislature shall annually appropriate sufficient funds to maintain the fund at a level not to exceed $750,000.00 and not less than $30,000.00.

(2)     The director may expend money from the disaster contingency fund upon appropriation for the purpose of paying necessary and reasonable overtime, travel, and subsistence expenses incurred by an employee of an agency of the state acting at the direction of the director in a disaster or emergency related operation, and, with the concurrence of the governor or the governor's designated representative, for other needs required for the mitigation of the effects of, or in response to, a disaster or emergency.

(3)     The director may place directly in the disaster contingency fund a reimbursement for expenditures out of the fund received from the federal government, or another source.

(4)     If a state of major disaster or emergency is declared by the president of the United States, and when authorized by the governor, an expenditure from the fund may be made by the director upon appropriation to pay the state's matching share of grants as provided by the disaster relief act of 1974, Public Law 93-288, 88 Stat. 143.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

MCL §30.419  Disaster contingency fund; expenditures when federal assistance not available; application for grant; resolution; rules.

(1)     Under extraordinary circumstances, upon the declaration of a state of disaster or a state of emergency by the governor and subject to the requirements of this subsection, the governor may authorize an expenditure from the disaster contingency fund to provide state assistance to counties and municipalities when federal assistance is not available.  If the governor proclaims a state of disaster or a state of emergency, the first recourse for disaster related expenses shall be to funds of the county or municipality.  If the demands placed upon the funds of a county or municipality in coping with a particular disaster or emergency are unreasonably great, the governing body of the county or municipality may apply, by resolution of the local governing body, for a grant from the disaster contingency fund.  The resolution shall certify that the affected county or municipality emergency operations plan was implemented in a timely manner.  The resolution shall set forth the purpose for which the assistance is sought, the extent of damages sustained, and certify an exhaustion of local efforts.  Assistance grants under this section shall not exceed $30,000.00 or 10% of the total annual operating budget for the preceding fiscal year of the county or municipality, whichever is less.  The assistance under this subsection is to provide grants, excluding reimbursement for capital outlay expenditures, in mitigation of the extraordinary burden of a county or municipality in relation to its available resources.

(2)     The director shall promulgate rules governing the application and eligibility for the use of the state disaster contingency fund.  Rules that have been promulgated prior to December 31, 1988 to implement this section shall remain in effect until revised or replaced.  The rules shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

(a)     Demonstration of exhaustion of local effort.

(b)     Evidence that the applicant is a county that actively maintains an emergency management program, reviewed by and determined to be current and adequate by the emergency management division of the department, before the disaster or emergency for which assistance is being requested occurs.  If the applicant is a municipality with a population of 10,000 or more, evidence that the municipality either maintains a separate emergency management program, reviewed by and determined to be current and adequate by the emergency management division of the department, before the disaster or emergency for which assistance is being requested or occurs, or the municipality is incorporated in the county emergency management program.

(c)     Evidence that the applicable county or municipal emergency operations plan was implemented in a timely manner at the beginning of the disaster or emergency.

(d)     Reimbursement for expenditures shall be limited to public damage and direct loss as a result of the disaster or emergency, or expenses incurred by the applicant for reimbursing employees for disaster or emergency related activities which were not performed as a part of their normal duties, or for other needs required specifically for the mitigation of the effects, or in response to the disaster or emergency.

(e)     A disaster assessment team established by the emergency management division of the department has substantiated the damages claimed by the applicant.  Damage estimates submitted by the applicant shall be based upon a disaster assessment carried out by the applicant according to standard procedures recommended by the emergency management division.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 50, Imd. Eff. Apr. 6, 1990

Admin Rule: R 30.1 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.

MCL §30.420  Repeal of §§ 30.221 to 30.233.

Act No. 154 of the Public Acts of 1953, as amended, being sections 30.221 to 30.233 of the Compiled Laws of 1970, and Act No. 14 of the Public Acts of 1973, are repealed.

History: 1976, Act 390, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1976

MCL §30.421  Heightened state of alert; cause; powers of governor; violation as misdemeanor; penalty; civil action; definitions.

(1)     If good cause exists to believe that terrorists or members of a terrorist organization are within this state or that acts of terrorism may be committed in this state or against a vital resource, the governor may by executive order or proclamation declare a heightened state of alert and subsequently exercise the authority provided in section 3(2) and section 5(1)(b), (c), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), and (j) in an effort to safeguard the interests of this state or a vital resource, to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism, or to facilitate the apprehension of terrorists or members of a terrorist organization and those acting in concert with them. However, in exercising the authority under section 5(1)(h), the governor shall not suspend or limit the sale, dispensing, or transportation of alcoholic beverages under this section. Within 7 days after declaring a heightened state of alert, the governor shall notify the majority leader and minority leader of the senate and the speaker and minority leader of the house of representatives of the declaration.  The governor may utilize the services, facilities, and resources available under this act under a declared state of disaster or emergency.  The exercise of those powers shall be consistent with the provisions of the state constitution of 1963 and the federal constitution and may continue until the heightened state of alert is no longer in effect.  The heightened state of alert shall continue until the governor finds that the threat or danger has passed, the heightened state of alert has been dealt with to the extent that the heightened state of alert conditions no longer exist, or until the heightened state of alert has been in effect for 60 days.  After 60 days, the governor shall terminate the heightened state of alert, unless a request by the governor for an extension of the heightened state of alert for a specific number of days is approved by resolution of both houses of the legislature.

(2)     A person shall not willfully disobey or interfere with the implementation of a rule, order, or directive issued by the governor under this section.  A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 90 days or a fine of not more than $100.00, or both.  Notwithstanding any provision in this section, a prosecuting agency shall not prosecute any person or seize any property for conduct presumptively protected by the first amendment to the constitution of the United States in a manner that violates any constitutional provision.

(3)     The attorney general or a prosecuting attorney may bring a civil action for damages or equitable relief to enforce the provisions of this act and the orders, rules, or regulations made in conformity with this act.

(4)     As used in this section:

(a)     “Act of terrorism” and “terrorist” mean those terms as defined in section 543b of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.543b.

(b)     “Terrorist organization” means that term as defined in section 543c of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.543c.

(c)     “Vital resource” means a public or private building, facility, property, function, or location, the protection of which is considered necessary to the public health, safety, and welfare and which the governor has designated, in writing, as a vital resource of this state.

History: Add. 2002, Act 132, Eff. May 1, 2002